Govt. mulls partnerships to make semiconductor chips

Govt. mulls partnerships to make semiconductor chips


Minister of State for Electronics and Information Technology Rajeev Chandrasekhar announced that the six working groups that had been tasked with reviewing the Indian government’s artificial intelligence (AI) roadmap had turned in their first version of a report. Among the recommendations of the report was the creation of public-private partnerships to produce semiconductors for AI applications.

What is a Semiconductor Chip? 

  • Transistors comprised of carefully chosen materials, often silicon, make up a semiconductor chip.
  • Transistors modify information that is encoded as 0s and 1s to create new information.
  • The source, the gate, and the drain (or sink) are the three components that make up a transistor.
  • The voltage applied to the gate controls how much current flows between the source and drain.
  • Each bit on the semiconductor chip represents a logical state (0 or 1) and is used to store information.

Why semiconductor chips are important?

  • These basic elements serve as the brain and heart of all modern devices and products utilising information and communications technology.
  • These chips are now a common feature of contemporary automobiles, home appliances, and essential medical devices like ECG machines.
  • Components of a semiconductor chip The basic unit of a semiconductor chip is a piece of silicon that has been etched with billions of tiny transistors to control the flow of electricity.
  • Nowadays, the most cutting-edge semiconductor nodes are those at 3 and 5 nanometers (nm). Automobiles, consumer electronics, and other devices use semiconductors with higher nanometer values whereas smartphones and laptops use those with lower values.

What are the challenges faced by the industry that makes semiconductor chips?

  • Chip shortage caused by pandemic-related plant closures, conflict between the US and China in Taiwan, interruption of the supply chain as a result of the Russia-Ukraine war, and increasing demand.
  • The production of semiconductors is very specialised. 90% of the 5nm (nanometer) chips used in the world are produced in considerable quantities by Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC).
  • So, all governments are working to create their domestic chip manufacturing industry.

What do we know about  The semiconductor industry in India?

  • The prospects in the semiconductor sector are beginning to be recognized in India.
  • When Foxconn Technology Group withdrew its backing from the joint venture with Vedanta, Ltd., the construction of a semiconductor manufacturing facility in Gujarat suffered a setback.
  • Incentives have been implemented by the Indian government to support the semiconductor industry.
  • Legacy Nodes
  • Instead of the most cutting-edge nodes like 10 nm or 5 nm, India is currently concentrating on nodes at 28 nm or above.
  • Numerous industries, including robotics, defence, aerospace, tools for industry automation, autos, the Internet of Things, and image sensors, continue to use legacy nodes in a variety of ways.
  • Starting using legacy nodes can provide benefits, such as cost-effectiveness and long-term success planning.