One-third of all 2022 suicides were of daily wage earners and farmers

One-third of all 2022 suicides were of daily wage earners and farmers


According to the National Crime Record Bureau’s (NCRB) Accidental Deaths and Suicides in India (ADSI) 2022 report, India reported over 1.7 lakh suicides in 2022, roughly one-third of whom were daily wage earners, agricultural labourers, and farmers.

What are the key points in the survey conducted by the NCRB?

  • Suicides in 2022 in India:
    • In 2022, India reported approximately 1.7 lakh suicides.
    • Daily wage earners, agricultural labourers, and farmers accounted for nearly one-third of all suicides.
    • Atrocities and crimes against Scheduled Castes and Tribes (SC/ST):
  • Crimes and atrocities against SCs and STs have increased generally.
    • Such cases have increased in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, and Telangana.
    • In 2022, Mizoram, which had reported no cases in 2021, reported five crimes against SCs and 29 cases against STs.
    • Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan were among the top five states in terms of the number of crimes committed against SCs and STs.
    • Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, and Punjab were also among the states with a high number of incidences.
  • Suicides by Occupation:
    • Aside from daily wage earners, agricultural workers, and farmers, self-employed or paid professionals accounted for 9.6% of suicides.
    • Unemployed people accounted for 9.2% of all suicides.
    • Over 12,000 students committed suicide.
  • Suicide Statistics by State:
    • The biggest number of suicides were reported in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, and Telangana.
    • Suicides among farmers/cultivators and agricultural labourers were reported to be zero in some states and union territories.
  • Suicide among Women:
    • Over 52% of the 48,000 women who died by suicide were housewives.
    • Homemakers accounted for almost 14% of all recorded suicides in the year.
    • Women who were students and daily wage earners were also prominent groups.
    • The research also highlighted 28 transgender suicides in 2022.
  • Suicide Factors:
    • The most common reasons for suicide were “family problems” and “illness,” which accounted for over half of all suicides.
    • Other causes included “drug abuse,” “alcohol addiction,” and “marriage-related issues,” with dowry issues playing a major role, particularly among women.

What are the factors that led to the increase in the suicides in India?

  • Economic Factors:
  • Financial Distress: Economic difficulties such as poverty, unemployment, and debt can all contribute to feelings of hopelessness and despair.
    • Farmers and agricultural labourers, in particular, may confront obstacles such as crop failure, debt pressure, and a lack of support, increasing their risk of suicide.
  • Social Aspects:
    • Family issues, strained relationships, and domestic abuse can all have a negative impact on mental health.
  • Marriage-Related Problems: Dowry issues and other marriage-related difficulties can contribute to suicide, particularly among women.
  • Problems with Mental Health:
  • Depression and Anxiety: Untreated mental health conditions can raise the risk of suicide. Individuals may be discouraged from getting help due to the stigma associated with mental health concerns.
  • Substance Abuse: Substance abuse and alcoholism can exacerbate mental health problems and contribute to suicide ideation.
  • Educational Burdens:
  • Academic Stress: High expectations, intense competition, and academic stress, especially among students, can contribute to mental health problems and suicidal ideation.
  • Discrimination and social stigma:
    • Discrimination Against Marginalized Groups: Discrimination against marginalized groups based on caste, gender, or other criteria can add to feelings of isolation and despair, raising the risk of suicide.


What are the ways to prevent suicides?

  • Mental Health Awareness and Education:
    • Conduct widespread initiatives to raise awareness about mental health concerns and decrease the stigma associated with seeking treatment.
    • Implement mental health education initiatives in schools and communities to encourage understanding and empathy.
  • Accessible Mental Health Services:
    • Improve access to mental health services such as counselling, therapy, and psychiatric care.
    • Integrate mental health treatments into primary care systems to make them more broadly available.
  • Community Support and Involvement:
    • Reduce feelings of loneliness by encouraging a sense of community and social connectedness.
    • Train members of the community, teachers, and first responders to notice and respond to symptoms of distress.
  • Taking Care of Economic and Social Issues:
    • Policy should be implemented to address economic inequality, unemployment, and poverty.
    • Provide financial assistance and counselling to people who are experiencing financial difficulties.
  • Policy and Legislation Development:
    • Create and implement regulations to combat prejudice, particularly against marginalized populations.
    • Advocate for the inclusion of mental health within broader public health initiatives.