Ozone 

#GS3 #Environment #Pollution  

Researchers have found that the concentration of near surface ozone in Brahmaputra River Valley (BRV) region in the North-East corner of India is low compared to the other urban locations in India. 

  • Tropospheric, or ground-level ozone, is created by chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). 
  • It usually increases when pollutants emitted by cars, power plants, industrial boilers, refineries, chemical plants, and other sources chemically react in the presence of sunlight, impacting human health. 

Recent study 

  • Scientists at the Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Nainital have evaluated the near surface ozone in the Brahmaputra River Valley (BRV) and found relatively low concentration of Ozone over Guwahati compared to the other urban locations in India. 
  • The examination of nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone concentrations in this study suggested that this site is well influenced by local sources such as adjacent major national highway. 
  • During the daylight hours, the site is in or nearly in a photo-stationary state, indicating a low impact of organic species on the ozone concentrations. 

Ozone 

  • Ozone (composed of three atoms of oxygen) occurs both in the Earth's upper atmosphere (stratosphere) and at ground level ( troposphere). It can be good or bad, depending on where it is found: 
  • Good Ozone: Ozone occurs naturally in the Earth's upper atmosphere (Stratosphere) where it forms a protective layer that shields us from the sun's harmful ultraviolet rays. 
  • Ozone depleting gases like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), HCFCs, halons, destroy this protective shield and causes hole in the ozone. 
  • India had adopted the Kigali Amendment (aims to phase-down hydrofluorocarbons). 
  • Bad Ozone: In the Earth's lower atmosphere (troposphere) near ground level, ozone is formed when pollutants emitted by cars, power plants, industrial boilers, refineries, chemical plants, and other sources react chemically in the presence of sunlight. 
  • Surface level Ozone is a harmful air pollutant. 
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