• United Nations (UN) Secretary-General Antonio Guterres has appointed Rear Admiral Guillermo Pablo Rios of Argentina as the Head of Mission and Chief Military Observer for the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP), the office of the UN Secretary-General has announced.


  • The establishment of UNMOGIP was through UN Security Council Resolution 39 of January 1948 that set up the UN Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP).
  • The Karachi Agreement of July 1949 paved the way for UN’s intervention into the Indo-Pak border affairs.
  • This led to the UN-level military observers to monitor the ceasefire line on the Indo-Pak border.
  • But India has a different stand, India claims that UNMOGIP’s role was “overtaken” by the Shimla Agreement of 1972.

What is the Shimla Agreement?

  • The Shimla Agreement, also spelled Shimla Agreement, was a peace treaty signed between India and Pakistan on 2 July 1972 in Shimla, the capital city of the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.
  • It followed the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, which began after India intervened in East Pakistan as an ally of Bengali rebels who were fighting against Pakistani state forces in the Bangladesh Liberation War.
  • The Indian intervention proved decisive in the war and led to East Pakistan’s breakaway from its union with West Pakistan and the emergence of the independent state of Bangladesh.
  • The treaty’s official purpose was stated to serve as a way for both countries to “put an end to the conflict and confrontation that have hitherto marred their relations” and to conceive the steps to be taken for further normalization of India–Pakistan relations while also laying down the principles that should govern their future interactions.
The Current Status:
  • Pakistan is against India’s stand and has been continuously seeking the intervention of United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP).
  • As a result of this divergent policies, Pakistan continues to lodge complaints with the UNMOGIP against alleged Indian ceasefire violations whereas India has not officially gone to the UNMOGIP since 1972 with complaints against Pakistan.
  • The UNMOGIP has proclaimed that due to this difference of opinion among the countries the UNMOGIP could be dissolved with a decision from the UN Security Council.


       Source The Hindu

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