El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)

El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) El Nino El Nino translates to ‘little boy’ or ‘Christ child’ in Spanish. El Nino is a climate pattern that denotes the unusual warming of surface waters in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean along the coast of Peru and Ecuador. […]


Monsoon The term “monsoon” denotes the seasonal reversal of wind direction and the climate system associated with it. The monsoons are a system of seasonal winds that travel from the sea to the land in the summer and from the land to the sea in […]

Indian Ocean Dipole

Indian Ocean Dipole Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is sometimes also referred to as the Indian Niño due to its similarity with the El Niño. Indian Ocean Dipole the difference in sea surface temperature between two areas i.e., the Arabian Sea in the west and Bay […]

Jet Streams

Jet Streams Jet streams are relatively narrow bands of geostrophic wind blowing horizontally through the upper layers of the troposphere. The main jet streams on Earth flow from west to east (Westerlies) but the flow often shifts to the north and south. Jet streams often […]