Karaga, Kempe Gowda Jayanti celebrations on same day, for now
Final decision will be taken later after assessment of COVID-19 cases
- The Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike has tentatively decided to go ahead with celebrating the Bengaluru Karaga and has started preparing for it.
- It is also planning to celebrate Kempe Gowda Jayanti on the same day.
- Karaga is one of the oldest festivals celebrated in the heart of Bengaluru. This is the festival of Goddess Draupadi.
- Bengaluru Karaga is primarily a well-known tradition of 'Vahnikula Kshatriyas Thigala' community in southern Karnataka.
- The Karaga festival is generally led by the men of the community.
- The roots of Karaga go back over five centuries, and to the Thigala community which has kept the festival alive over the centuries.
- Mystery shrouds the origin of the Thigalas.
- By one account, the Thigalas sprung form the lions of the sage Angirasa whose progeny were the founders of most of the dynasties of South India.
- Participants in the Karaga bear the deity on their head without touching by hand and moving around.
- It is believed that the Draupadi will come down from heaven to earth and stay for three days with the community.
- In this connection the community will perform Vratha (religious practice) for 11 days in a year from the day of Chaitra Shashti.
On the occasion of International Women's Day today, Prime Minister Narendra Modi shared a story of Maharashtra's Beed district's Banjara community woman entrepreneur Vijaya Pawar.
- The video showcased her inspiring journey of how she became an entrepreneur of age-old Gormati handicrafts of the Banjara community.
- Vijaya narrated her story and familiarise the world with Gormati art. She showcased how she encouraged thousands of women artisans working with 90 self-help groups (SHGs) under her guidance.
- With the guidance of the Khadi and Village Industries Commission currently, Vijaya is working in 99 Tandas of four Talukas in the Beed district of Maharashtra.
- She thanked PM Modi for encouraging her community to promote Gormati art.
Mega job fair on March 15
A job-cum-free skill development training mela will be organised on March 15 in Bengalure under the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY).
WHAT IS PMKVY?
- It is a flagship program of Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) launched in 2015. National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) implements it with the help of training partners.
- It aims to mobilize youth to take up skill training with the aim of increasing productivity and aligning the training and certification to the needs of the country.
- Owing to the success of PMKVY 1.0 wherein more than 19 lakh students were trained as against the target of 24 lakh, the scheme was relaunched as PMKVY 2.0 (2016-2020) with an allocated budget of Rs. 12000 Crores that aims to train 10 million youth by the year 2020.
- Short Term Training: Training as per National Skills Qualification Framework (NSQF) is provided to those who are either school/college dropouts or unemployed.
- Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL): An individual with a certain set of skills or with prior learning experience is assessed and certified under RPL with grade according to the NSQF.
- Special Projects: This component ensures training in special areas and premises of government bodies and corporate. It aims to encourage training in vulnerable and marginalized groups of society.
- Training Partners (TPs) are mandated to organize Kaushal and Rozgar Melas every six months, thus providing placement assistance to certified ones.
- Out of 4.06 million candidates that got enrolled between its relaunch and 24 January 2019, 3.73 million completed the course.
- Certification Stats: Candidates who score at least 50% of total marks are provided with certification. Nearly, 30% of those who enrolled between the above mentioned period have not been certified yet. This shows that even skill training is not enough for such people. This point towards the lack of proper basic education at schools and colleges.
- Placement Stats: Tracking of placements is mandatory under PMKVY. Till 26 October 2018, 1.94 lakh candidates got a certificate and out of them, only 55% got employed across different sectors. This shows the low employability level under PMKVY.
- The government needs to ensure high-quality secondary education at the secondary level to prepare the youth for skills provided under the scheme. It should also promote vocational education in schools.
- Training Partners need to be made accountable for training and the number of placement opportunities that are provided under the scheme.
- Participation from more and more industries should be sought for placement of the candidates trained under the scheme.
- Around one million youth enter the workforce every month; it is necessary to increase the number of people that go under training under the scheme.
#Polity & Governance
Context : Karnataka Congress to move privilege motion against Medical Education minister K Sudhakar for remarks against MLA and former speaker Ramesh Kumar.
What does Privilege motion mean?
- Unlike the no confidence motion, the privilege motion is applicable to both the Rajya-Sabha and the Lok Sabha.
- As MP’s of the Parliament, the members are granted certain privileges individually as well as collectively so that they can perform their duties properly.
- But, if any of the member disregards these immunities or rights, the act is known as breach of privilege and is liable to be punished under the same as per the Parliament laws.
Rule 187 / 222
- The privilege motion has a mention in Chapter 20 of rule 22 for the Lok Sabha and Chapter 16 Rule 187 for the Rajya Sabha.
- If any member wants to move the privilege motion he or she has to provide a notice to the Speaker before 10 am against any other member, committee or even the house.
- The first scrutiny level of the privilege motion in the Lok Sabha is through the Speaker and Rajya Sabha through the Chairperson. If the Speaker or Chairperson admits the motion than the accused or concerned is given a chance to explain themselves.
Referring a Motion
- After listening to the member the Speaker/Chairperson can refer the motion to the parliamentary committee.
- It consists of 15 members in equal strength from various political parties. They prepare a report on the same and a debate of one and half hour is allowed on the report prior passing the final orders.
- The speaker may also suggest that the ordered be tabled and decision or resolution be passed on it in collectively.
- The procedure remains the same for the Rajya Sabha or the upper house as well.
- Only that in the Rajya Sabha the committee is made up of only 10 members against 15.
#Polity & Governance
As much as 67% of donations to national parties in 2018-19 came from “unknown sources,” an increase from 53% in the previous financial year, said a report released by the Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR).
- The ADR analysed the income tax returns and donation statements submitted to the Election Commission by the BJP, the Congress, the Trinamool, the Communist Party of India (Marxist), the Nationalist Congress Party and the Bahujan Samaj Party.
- The total income of the parties was ₹3,749.37 crore, of which ₹951.66 crore was from known donors. Of the total income from unknown sources, 64% went to the BJP and 29% to the Congress.
- Electoral bonds accounted for 78% of the ₹2,512.98-crore income from unknown sources.
- While parties are required to give details of all donations above ₹20,000, donations under ₹20,000 and those through electoral bonds remain anonymous.
Way ahead: “Since a very large percentage of the income of political parties cannot be traced to the original donor, full details of all donors should be made available for public scrutiny under the RTI [Right to Information Act],” the ADR said in a statement.
#Poity & Governance
The nine working groups, constituted after the Lok Sabha election and comprising Election Commission of India (ECI) officials and State Chief Electoral Officers, presented their draft recommendations to ECI.
The ECI published 25 of the main recommendations and invited comments or suggestions from the public till March 31.
Some of these draft recommendations are:
- Issuing electronic versions of the voter ID card — EPIC — for convenience of voters;
- Replacing all the forms for various voter services, including registration of new voter and change of address, with one single form;
- Exploring new voting methods which remains secure and safe to ease and improve the electoral participation;
- Capping the campaign expenditure of political parties;
- Starting online registration facilities at the school or college-level for all prospective voters at 17 years of age, so they can be enrolled in the electoral roll as soon as they become eligible at 18.
- Imposing a “silence period of 48 hours” before polling on social media and print media.
#Polity & Governance
Delhi’s shame is India’s shame
The riots were stoked by a series of factors, but it is the stark police ineptitude that must cause much introspection
- More than 100 days since protests against the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, or the CAA began, and weeks after the worst ever communal riots in Delhi since 1984, questions are being raised as to what went wrong. It is quite evident by now that collective failure lay at the root of what could have been restricted in scope, if not entirely prevented.
The mix that ignited
- Some saw in the Delhi riots the shadow of 1984. The comparison is, however, flawed. The 1984 Sikh riots took the authorities by surprise, while the country has been in a kind of ‘slow burn’ ever since the CAA was passed by Parliament in December 2019.
- Over time, protests against the CAA became larger in scope, specially in urban centres such as Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Bengaluru.
- A mixture of political insensitivity, deliberate apathy in allowing the situation to simmer, social disharmony, pronounced incompetence of those responsible for law and order, and, above all, a highly polarised atmosphere, helped stoke the embers of conflict.
- The Delhi High Court and the Supreme Court came in for a share of blame, albeit for not intervening effectively to contain the violence.
- One former Justice of the Supreme Court argued that had the judiciary been more proactive, lives lost in the recent violence could have been saved.
- The Chief Justice of India, Sharad Bobde, opined that courts were not ‘equipped’ to handle palpable ‘pressure’ being created to somehow step in and prevent violence.
- The Central government demonstrated an obvious unwillingness to step in to quell the violence, despite the fact that law and order in Delhi is primarily the responsibility of the Home Ministry.
- Political analysts have speculated that this may be due to the Bharatiya Janata Party’s angst, consequent on the rebuff it received in the recent Delhi elections.
- The BJP government at the Centre, sat out the conflict, at a time when social harmony was at high risk, and sizeable segments of the population in northeast Delhi were facing extraordinary high levels of risk to their lives and livelihoods.
- In security and law and order parlance, intelligence and police constitute the vital last 10%.
- Compounding the failure of the political and administrative leadership has been the ineptness displayed by the police and intelligence agencies.
- Arguments adduced subsequently that nearly 7,600 members of the Central Forces — Delhi has about 80,000 police officers and men — were deployed to contain the riots, cannot obscure the extent of failure.
- Preparations for violence and the polarising rhetoric had made it all too evident that violence could be expected.
- Blaming the police is par for the course whenever a major riot occurs. Sometimes the police are taken unawares, but this time the police had ample warning, from their own accumulation of day-to-day information and presumably from central intelligence agencies as well.
- The Delhi police does function under a kind of diarchy, controlled not by the Chief Minister, but by bureaucrats in the Union Home Ministry, who operate through the Lt. Governor.
- In effect, no one remains in control. Yet, even this does not quite explain why the Delhi police failed to see what was coming.
- The Delhi police needs to provide a true explanation for their utter ineptitude.
Target for all
- The riots in Delhi did not fall into the category of nuclear science. If it were the latter, one could at least have attributed this to intelligence failure.
- A far less endowed police force, would have been able to effectively handle a situation that has since become a symbol of shame for Indian democracy, inviting the wrath of not only bodies such as the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, but also allowing countries with little pretense to secular democracy to point fingers at us.
- The Delhi police need to set their house in order for, alongside other police forces across the world, they need to prepare for a future in which technological advances are creating an entire new paradigm of threats.
- In the age of rampant social media, they need to be ready to deal with the ‘weaponisation of social media’ — this may have already occurred in the Delhi case.
- In the era of artificial intelligence, they will also need to prepare for the so-called ‘deception revolution’, including dealing with ‘deep-fake’ threats, where digitally manipulated audio and video material designed to be as realistic as possible, becomes near impossible to separate from the truth. This would create a whole new portfolio of dangers.
- As we face untold new dangers, it would be unfortunate that through a combination of factors, including unwarranted interference in its role and activities, India’s law and order showpiece, the Delhi police, is portrayed as inefficient and ineffective, even to deal with a mundane communal riot.
Back-to-school jitters in the Valley
After a seven-month break caused by the abrogation of Jammu and Kashmir’s special status and the consequent shutdown of the Valley, students returned to school on February 24. Peerzada Ashiq reports on their stuggle to catch up just before schools closed again in the face of the novel coronavirus threat
- Private schools in Kashmir Valley were decked up to welcome the children after a long, forced break: candy stalls were set up and motivational quotes painted on the walls.
- The students were excited; they were returning to school after 202 days, or nearly seven months. Instead of disciplining them, the teachers chose to be indulgent on that day.
Exams during a shutdown
- All the 11,308 schools (837 high schools, 410 higher secondary schools, 4,225 middle schools and 5,836 primary schools) in the Kashmir division were forced to close following the Centre's decision on August 5, 2019, to end Jammu and Kashmir’s special status drawn from Articles 370 and 35A of the Constitution.
- The decision, and the shutdown following it, took a big toll on the functioning of schools.
- Most of the schools in the Valley failed to conduct the annual assessment test due to curfew-like restrictions and absence of communication lines.
- Most schools opted to give students home assignments instead of holding annual examinations in classrooms.
- Students could not attend any of the tuition classes held during the shutdown because of the deteriorating economic condition of their families in that period.
- There was so much security presence from August 5 as well as sporadic protests that students' parents didn't allow them to step out to meet their friends.
- They would play home cricket. If tried to step out, they got shouted at by CRPF personnel.
- Getting the students back to school was no easy task. They had a seven-month forced ‘staycation’. They spent that time without Internet and without any outing.
- A student’s motivation to return to school comes down significantly when there is such a long gap.
- Students also exhibit many behavioral disorders when they are forced to stay out of school for so long, says experts.
- Experts warn that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other such conditions are likely to show school refusal behavior.
Bridging the knowledge gap
- The Director of the Education Department of Kashmir, Younis Malik, says they aim to have 220 working days for the middle school and at least 200 days for primary schools in the Valley this year.
- But when asked how to bridge the knowledge gap and help students acquire the fundamentals, Malik’s department does not have an answer.
Life without Internet
- The lack of Internet during the shutdown was a serious concern for students and school administrations across the Valley.
- This was the reason why the syllabus could not be completed using apps and video lessons. Established in 1874 by then Dogra ruler, Maharaja Pratap Singh, Sri Pratap School was closed for several days in 2017 and 2019 in the wake of violent protests. The school’s main building was taken over by additional battalions of the CRPF from August 2019.
- During the winter vacations, the Sri Pratap School usually hosts ‘Project Kashmir Super 50’, an initiative rolled out by Naeem Akhtar, the former Education Minister and Peoples Democratic Party leader who is now in jail, along with J&K Peoples Movement chief, Shah Faesal, in 2013.
- Its aim is to prepare children from economically weaker sections for professional examinations.
- After the Supreme Court’s intervention in January, only 2G Internet and limited access to around 1,500 sites, identified as whitelisted sites, was given.
- The rest were blocked in Kashmir. This had the students on edge. They fear that this curfew may be imposed again any time.
- According to KPSA data, most schools in the Valley depend on online teaching for new modules for teachers too. In the absence of Internet, the teaching ecosystem too gets impacted.
- Now limited Internet has been restored in the Valley but the threat of COVID-19 has again forced the closure of all schools for the month of March.
- Parents worry that children will be forced to stay at home again. There is still not access to 4G. If the government permits this, we can have video classes for the children.
Education sector under strain
- Educational institutions in the Kashmir division saw only three-and-a-half-months of class work in 2019.
- Students went to school for only 105 days, whereas the National Education Policy, 2019, calls for 220 working days in educational institutes.
- The fact that no aspirant qualified for the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) from the Kashmir region in 2018-19 needs to be viewed with seriousness.
- Official figures suggest that on an average, six to nine aspirants from the Kashmir region qualified for the UPSC exams before 2016, the year when Kashmir was engulfed in long cycle of street protests which saw civilian deaths.
- Kashmir’s education sector is today under tremendous strain. According to 2011 Census data, the Kashmir region, which has a population of 69.1 lakh, has just 2,700 private schools compared to Jammu which has a population of 53.5 lakh and 4,300 schools.
- According to official figures, there are 480 government-run schools without teachers, 3,122 schools (33%) without electricity. Also, 70% of the schools are without playgrounds.
- Despite this dismal scenario, 65,393 students appeared for the Class 10 exam in 2019. The pass percentage was 75%.
- Officials say that the J&K State Board of School Education had to offer grace marks to ensure that the pass percentage was brought on par with the 2018 pass percentage of 75.44%.
- However, the pass percentage in the government schools of Ganderbal (50.37%), Bandipora (53.90%) and Baramulla (57%) districts was poor.
- Over the last three years, 125 private schools closed in Kashmir due to recurring agitations.
Even schools that were once managed by the Jamaat-e-Islami (JeI) face the threat of closure. With the Centre banning the socio-religious group in February last year, the fate of 385 schools run by the JEI came under question. Together these schools have enrolled one lakh students. “The government’s move put both students and teachers through a lot of stress. Most of them are from disadvantaged classes. One year since, hundreds of students and teachers have already switched to other schools,” says the headmaster of a JeI-run school.
Having an ear to Adivasi ground
Policy framers must recognise their wide diversity in order to address their different problems.
- In November 2018, the Adivasis of Jhargram, West Bengal, were overtaken by an event while preparing for the Bandhna festival; seven adults of the KhariaSavar community died within a span of just two weeks. Their lifespan is approximately 26 years less than the average Indian’s life expectancy.
- The cause of the deaths could not be medically verified. Other villagers were of the view that those who had passed away were suffering from tuberculosis and excessive drinking.
- The views about the ‘underdevelopment’ of the Adivasis typically subscribes to this section of the population being the ‘takers/receivers’ of governmental benefits.
- Mutual co-operation, decision making through discussion, peaceful co-habitation with others and with nature, age-old and time-tested practices of environmental protection, and other such high civic qualities observed by them could have added to the country’s “democratic curriculum”.
- However, the politics of dominance, economics of immediate gain, and a social outlook of separateness have charted a very different path for the Adivasis.
Study finds a knowledge gap
- A study conducted by the Asiatic Society and the Pratichi Institute among 1,000 households across West Bengal. The study found that there exists, both in the public and academic domains, a wide gap in knowledge about this selectively forgotten and pragmatically remembered population.
- The public and academic domains, a wide gap in knowledge about this selectively forgotten and pragmatically remembered population. In West Bengal, there are 40 Adivasi groups notified by the government as Scheduled Tribes (STs), but most people use the terms Adivasi and Santal interchangeably. Santal in fact, is but one of the 40 notified tribes forming 47% of the total ST population.
- This knowledge gap leads to democratic denial for the Adivasis. The imposed superiority of the outside world has resulted in the Adivasis considering themselves as inferior, primitive and even taking a fatalistic view of their subjugated life.
- Making them abandon some of their socially unifying customs and cultural practices - particularly democratic norms and human values that have evolved through a protracted journey of collective living and struggles for existence.
- Adivasi are often reminded of their primitive roots and kept alienated. They are a source of cheap labour and live lives where they are half-fed with no opportunities to flourish and develop their human capabilities seems unalterable.
- Therefore, it is important to go beyond the administrative convention of bracketing Adivasis into a single category. Rather, policy framing requires mandatory recognition of their wide diversity so as to address the different problems faced by different groups — by community as well as by region.
- It is also important to abide by the general constitutional rules which are often violated by the state. In other words, the very common instances of violations of the Forest Rights Act, the Right to Education Act, and the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act — which affect them — have to be eliminated.
- The possibility of fair implementation of public programmes, however, is contingent to an agentic involvement of the communities concerned. Instead of being considered to be mere passive recipients, Adivasis must be respected as active agents of change and involved in all spheres of policy, from planning to implementation.
- It is imperative that the entire outlook on the Adivasi question is reversed. Instead of considering Adivasis to be a problem, the entire country can benefit a great deal by considering them as co-citizens and sharing their historically constructed cultural values which often manifest the best forms of democracy and uphold the notions of higher levels of justice, fairness, and equality — better than those prevalent in seemingly mainstream societies. By ensuring their right to live their own lives, the country can in fact guarantee itself a flourishing democracy.
Over 40% govt. schools don’t have power, playgrounds
Parliamentary panel identifies critical infrastructure gaps.
- Almost half the government schools in the country do not have electricity or playgrounds, according to a report submitted by the parliamentary panel on education.
- In its report on the 2020-2021 demand for grants for school education submitted to the Rajya Sabha last week, the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Human Resource Development (HRD) expressed concern that budgetary allocations saw a 27% cut from proposals made by the School Education Department.
- Only 56% of schools have electricity, with the lowest rates in Manipur and Madhya Pradesh, where less than 20% have access to power.
- Less than 57% of schools have playgrounds, including less than 30% of schools in Odisha and Jammu and Kashmir, according to the Unified District Information System for Education (UDISE) 2017-18 survey.
- The panel recommended that the HRD Ministry collaborate with the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme to construct boundary walls, and work with the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy to provide solar and other energy sources so that schools have access to power.
- The parliamentary panel also slammed the government for its “dismal” rate of progress in building classrooms, labs and libraries to strengthen government higher secondary schools. Out of 2,613 sanctioned projects for 2019-20, only three had been completed in the first nine months of the financial year, said the panel, warning that such delays would alienate students from government schools.
- In government higher secondary schools, not a single additional classroom had been built by December 31, 2019, although 1,021 had been sanctioned for the financial year 2019-20.
- Only three laboratories had been built — one each for physics, chemistry and biology — despite sanctioned funds for 1,343 labs. Although 135 libraries and 74 art/craft/culture rooms had been sanctioned, none had been built with just three months left in the financial year.
- Overall, for the core Samagra Shiksha Scheme, the department had only spent 71% of revised estimates by December 31, 2019.
MALNUTRITION AMONG WOMEN
Union Minister of Women and Child Development informed Rajya Sabha about Malnutrition among Women.
- As per the recent report of National Family Health Survey (NFHS) – 4 conducted by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in 2015-16, 22.9% women (15-49 years of age) are underweight (BMI less than 18.5 kg/m2).
- The five States/UTs having highest percentage of malnutrition among women are Jharkhand (31.5%), Bihar (30.4%), Dadra and Nagar Haveli (28.7%), Madhya Pradesh (28.4%), Gujarat (27.2%) and Rajasthan (27%).
- Schemes like Anganwadi Services, Scheme for Adolescent Girls and Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojna (PMMVY) and POSHAN Aabhiyaan are being implemented to address the problem of malnutrition among women.
SEXUAL HARASSMENT AT THE WORKPLACE
According to a report released by Network of Women in Media, India (NWMI), over 70% of respondents who had approached an internal committee to report sexual harassment at the workplace were not completely satisfied with the outcome.
- The survey found that 36% of all respondents reported having experienced sexual harassment at the workplaces. Of the respondents who experienced such harassment at work, 53% did not report it.
- A small percentage made a report to the internal committee (IC) of their media houses. But 70% of those who made a complaint were not completely satisfied with the outcome.
- Among the women who said that their organisation did not have a mechanism to deal with sexual harassment, 47% had faced sexual harassment.
- In terms of the kinds of harassment experienced by the respondents, the most common were sexist comments, unwelcome sexual jokes, embarrassing gestures or body language, attempts to establish unwanted romantic and/or sexual relationships, and pestering for dates.
Mason, centenarians, artists among Nari Shakti winners
President gives away award to women achievers
- A mason, a centenarian athlete, Jharkhand’s ‘Lady Tarzan’ and a “mushroom mahila” were among the 15 women awarded the Nari Shakti Puraskar by President Ram Nath Kovind.
- The government gives away the awards every year to recognise the service of women towards the cause of women’s empowerment and social welfare. The 2019 winners are from fields as diverse as agriculture, sports, handicrafts, afforestation and wildlife conservation, armed forces and education.
- Bina Devi, 43, a mushroom grower, won the award for popularising mushroom production in five blocks and 105 neighbouring villages of Munger district, helping 1,500 women.
- Mann Kaur, 103, known as the “Miracle from Chandigarh”, started her athletic career at the age of 93. She won four golds at the World Masters Athletic Championship, Poland and set a record by becoming the world’s fastest centenarian at the American Masters Game, 2016.
- Kalavati Devi, a 58-year-old mason, won the award for acting as the driving force towards reducing open defecation in Kanpur. She is responsible for building over 4,000 toilets in villages and has gone door to door to create awareness of the ills of open defecation.
- Padala Bhudevi, 40, who has been working for the welfare of tribal women and widows, won the award for training 30 women in making mehendi cones and hair care products.
- Arifa Jan, 33, was awarded for reviving the art of Numdha handicrafts and has trained more than 100 women in Kashmir.
- Chami Murmu, 47, fondly known as the ‘Lady Tarzan’ of Jharkhand, has been involved in planting more than 25 lakh trees along with the Forest Department and by mobilising more than 3,000 women.
- Nilza Wangmo, 40, is an entrepreneur running Alchi Kitchen Restaurant, the first one to serve traditional Ladakhi cuisines. She has trained 20 women from Ladakh who manage the restaurant and has represented Ladakhi recipes in 5-star hotels. Rashmi Urdhwardeshe, 60, has been the director of the Automotive Research Association of India. She has rich experience in the fields of automotive R&D, testing and homologation, framing of test standards and regulations.
- Tashi and Nungshi Malik, 28, from Uttrakhand were the first women twins to scale Everest in 2013.
- Kaushiki Chakraborty, 38, is a classical vocalist with more than 15 years of experience. Avani Chaturvedi, 26, Bhawanna Kanth, 27, and Mohana Singh Jitarwal 28, are the first women fighter pilots. Bhageerathi Amma, 105, and Karthyayini Amma, 98, have passed the Class IV literacy equivalent examinations.
Telling Numbers | Bias against women: widespread among women too
What UNDP’s Gender Social Norms Index, covering 80% of the world population in 75 countries, tells us about gender inequality worldwide and in India.
- 86% & 90% of women and men, respectively, held some sort of bias against women (2018), according to UNDP’s Gender Social Norms Index; in India (2014-15), this bias showed un 97% of women and 99% of men.
- About half the world’s population feel men make better political leaders.
- Over 40% feel that men make better business executives and that men have more right to a job when jobs are scarce.
- 24% of parliamentary seats worldwide are held by women, and there are only 10 female heads of government out of a possible 193.
- Less than 6% of CEOs in S&P 500 companies are women; while women work more hours than men, this work is more likely to be unpaid care work.