Super Cyclone : Amphan 

#GS1 #Geography #Climatology #SuperCyclone 

Amphan was upgraded to a super cyclonic storm on Monday, only the second to form in the Bay of Bengal in two decades.  

  •  It is moving at a speed of 14 kmph. At 2.30 am, it lay 570 km south of Odisha’s Paradip, 720 km south-southwest of Digha in West Bengal and 840 km south-southwest of Khepupara in Bangladesh.  
  • The storm is expected to make landfall along Digha in West Bengal by the evening of May 20. The two states and Bangladesh are on high alert, with a “massive evacuation” underway, according to the Collector and District Magistrate of Odisha’s Bhadrak. 

What is a super cyclone? 

  • A rapidly-rotating storm system characterised by spiral arrangement of thunderstorms rains, a low-pressure centre, strong winds, is what is known as a super cyclone.  
  • They form over large bodies of warm water, deriving their energy from water evaporation from the surface of the ocean.  
  • This water recondenses into clouds and rain when moist air rises and cools to saturation. Tropical Cyclones are low pressure systems that form over warm tropical waters and have gale force winds (sustained winds of 63 km/h or greater and gusts in excess of 90 km/h) near the centre. 

What are the categories of Tropical cyclone? 

  • Tropical Cyclone generally has a speed of 125 km/h Gales. 
  • Tropical Cyclone has a speed of 125 - 164 km/h and is characterised with destructive winds. 
  • Severe Tropical Cyclone are very destructive winds with a speed of 165 - 224 km/h. 

How it happened in 1999? 

  • A tropical depression formed over the Malay Peninsula on October 25. It moved to the northwest and became a tropical storm on October 26.  
  • It continued to strengthen into a cyclone on October 27, 1999. On October 28, it became a severe cyclone with a peak of 190 mph (305 km/h) winds. It hit India the next day as a 155 mph (250 km/h) cyclone. 

How deadly was 1999 Odisha super cyclone? 

  • The 1999 Odisha cyclone, also known as Cyclone 05B, and Paradwip cyclone, was the deadliest tropical cyclone in the Indian Ocean since the 1991 Bangladesh cyclone, and deadliest Indian storm since 1971.  
  • It struck the coast of Odisha with an height of in 1999 was 26 feet (8 meters). Approximately 275,000 homes were destroyed leaving 1.67 million people homeless.  
  • Another 19.5 million people were affected by the supercyclone to some degree. A total of 9,803 people officially died from the storm. Though it is believed that 15,000 people died. 

Related News : First Super cyclone in Arabian Sea 

Cyclone Kyarr is a tropical cyclone that has intensified west of India in the Northern Indian Ocean’s Arabian Sea as a Category 4 storm with 150 mph winds. 

  • According to the India Meteorological Department (IMD), Cyclone Kyarr is the first Super Cyclonic storm in the Arabian Sea in the last 12 years. 
  • It has been named by Myanmar. 
  • This made Kyarr the second most intense tropical cyclone on record in the Northern Indian Ocean’s the Arabian Sea. 
  • The only stronger storm on record in the Arabian Sea was 2007’s category 5 Tropical Cyclone Gonu. 
  • According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), only four other Category 4 or stronger tropical cyclones besides Kyarr have been recorded in the Arabian Sea, since 1998: 
  • Gonu, 2007 (165 mph winds, the only cat 5 on record in the Arabian Sea) 
  • Phet, 2010 (145 mph winds) 
  • Chapala, 2015 (140 mph winds) 
  • Nilofar, 2014 (130 mph winds). 
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