Kala Azar 

#GS3 #Diseases 

Scientists from the Institute of Nano Science & Technology (INST), Mohali have developed an oral nanomedicine for combating visceral leishmaniasis (Kala Azar). 

What is ‘Kala Azar’? 

  • It is a neglected tropical disease affecting almost 100 countries including India. Neglected tropical diseases are a diverse group of communicable diseases that prevail in tropical and subtropical conditions in 149 countries. 
  • It is caused by a parasite called Leishmania, which is transmitted through the bite of sand flies. 

There are three types of leishmaniasis  

  • Visceral leishmaniasis, which affects multiple organs and is the most serious form of the disease. 
  • Cutaneous leishmaniasis, which causes skin sores and is the most common form. 
  • Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which causes skin and mucosal lesions. 
  • Visceral leishmaniasis, which is commonly known as Kala-azar in India, is fatal in over 95% of the cases, if left untreated. 
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