India is placed 3rd among countries in scientific publication 

#GS3 #Science&Technology #Research&Development 

India’s gross expenditure in R&D has tripled between 2008 & 2018 driven mainly by Govt sector and scientific publications have risen placing the country internationally among the top few.  

  • This is as per the R&D Statistics and Indicators 2019-20 based on the national S&T survey 2018 brought out by the National Science and Technology Management Information (NSTMIS), Department of Science and Technology (DST). 
  • The report shows that with the rise in publication, the country is globally at the 3rd position on this score as per the NSF database, 3rd in the number of Ph.D. in science & engineering.  
  • The number of researchers per million population has doubled since 2000. 

Some of the key findings of the report are the following: 

India’s gross expenditure in R&D has tripled between 2008 & 2018 

  • The Gross expenditure on R&D (GERD) in the country has been consistently increasing over the years and has nearly tripled from Rs. 39,437.77 crore in 2007- 08 to Rs. 1,13,825.03 crore in 2017-18. 
  • India’s per capita R&D expenditure has increased to PPP $ 47.2 in 2017-18 from PPP $ 29.2 in 2007-08. 
  • India spent 0.7% of its GDP on R&D in 2017-18, while the same among other developing BRICS countries was Brazil 1.3%, Russian Federation 1.1%, China 2.1% and South Africa 0.8%. 

Extramural R&D support by central S&T agencies has increased significantly 

  • DST and DBT were the two major players contributing 63% and 14%, respectively of the total extramural R&D support in the country during 2016-17. 
  • Women participation in extramural R&D projects has increased significantly to 24% in 2016-17 from 13% in 2000-01 due to various initiatives undertaken by the Government in S&T sector 
  • As on 1st April 2018, nearly 5.52 lakh personnel were employed in the R&D establishments in the country 

The number of researchers per mn populations has doubled since 2000 

  • Number of researchers per million population in India has increased to 255 in 2017 from 218 in 2015 and 110 in 2000. 
  • India’s R&D expenditure per researcher was 185 (‘000 PPP$) during 2017-18 and was ahead of Russian Federation, Israel, Hungary, Spain and UK. 
  • India occupies 3rd rank in terms of number of Ph. D.’s awarded in Science and Engineering (S&E) after USA (39,710 in 2016) and China (34,440 in 2015). 
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