The next mission 

  • Like swatch bharat, Jal jeevan mission will help benefit wider economy
  • Jal Jeevan Mission, is envisioned to provide safe and adequate drinking water through individual household tap connections by 2024 to all households in rural India.

 

Success of SBM paves way for JJM  

  • Over 10 crore toilets have been built in rural India and nearly 55 crore people have stopped defecating in the open, all in just five years. This has contributed in bringing down global open defecation by more than half.
  • The UNICEF recently estimated that investments in sanitation in India are yielding a 400 per cent return with each rural household in an open-defecation-free village saving Rs 50,000 on account of avoided medical costs and time savings.
  • The Toilet Board Coalition has estimated that the sanitation infrastructure and services market in India will be worth over $60 billion by 2021, many new jobs, even in the most rural areas of the country, apart from reducing health and environmental costs and generating savings for households.
  • Recent study by UNICEF in which they have estimated that SBM has resulted in creating over 75 lakh full time equivalent jobs over the past five years, giving the rural economy a major boost.
  • Our government continues to prioritise the water and sanitation sectors as key pillars of broader rural development and committed to ensuring that this success is sustained

 

JJM will provide a massive fillip to the ease of living for women, and they will no longer be beasts of burden. 

  • Two hundred and fifty six of our approximately 700 districts have groundwater levels which are “critical” or “over-exploited” as per the latest data from the Central Ground Water Board (2017).
  • According to a report by the National Commission for Women, on an average, a rural woman in Rajasthan walks over 2.5 km to reach a water source. 
  • This is probably an underestimate, but the bottomline is that our women and girls spend a significant proportion of their time on fetching water.

 

Habitable-zone Planet Finder : to study light and confirm a potential exoplanet 

  • A spectrograph is an instrument that splits light into its component wavelengths. Scientists then measure the properties of light over a specific portion of the spectrum, and draw conclusions on what is responsible for the trends they observe.
  • HPF is an astronomical spectrograph, built by Penn State University scientists, and recently installed on the 10m Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory in Texas. 
  • The instrument is designed to detect and characterize planets in the habitable-zone, the region around the star where a planet could sustain liquid water on its surface around nearby low-mass stars. 
  • The newly confirmed planet, called G 9-40b, is the first one validated by HPF. It is about twice the size of Earth, and orbits its star once every six Earth-days.

 

How it works 

  • A spectrograph is an instrument that splits light into its component wavelengths. Scientists then measure the properties of light over a specific portion of the spectrum, and draw conclusions on what is responsible for the trends they observe. 
  • Kepler’s observations alone were not enough to confirm a planet. It was possible that a close stellar companion was responsible for the dip in the star’s light. 
  • Precision spectroscopic observations from HPF ruled out this possibility. Shooting a high-power laser into the air, researchers generated a “laser guide star”, and subsequent observations found no evidence of blending of light or other stellar companions. 
  • At Apache Point Observatory, researchers plotted a ground-based transit of the proposed planet using a process called diffusion-based photometry. They found that the plot agrees with the transits observed by Kepler.

 

Other Important articles to read  

https://indianexpress.com/article/parenting/family/when-home-becomes-the-most-dangerous-place-for-the-child-6279457/ 

 

https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/how-india-proposals-at-un-event-can-help-elephants-migratory-birds-6280493/ 

 

https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-donald-trump-visit-india-us-ties-over-the-years-bush-nixon-clinton-jimmy-carter-6280481/ 

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