Carbon Capture, Utilisation & Storage (CCUS) 

#GS3 #Environment 

CCUS is one of the identified innovation challenges in the Mission Innovation (MI) Programme, a global initiative of 24 countries and the European Union to accelerate the global clean energy innovation in which the Department of Science & Technology (DST) is an active partner. The DST has already funded 19 R&D projects in the area of CCUS under the MI umbrella, partnering with 13 MI countries. 

Background : CCUS Conference 

  • The CCUS conference brings together carbon capture and GHG reduction technology decision-makers, scientists and government officials. 
  • It involves high-level strategic updates, case studies on emerging technologies, and connect on research in the industry to advance this important technology. 
  • The goal of the program is: 
  • To raise awareness of diverse global initiatives and projects 
  • Promote greater participation in international dialogue 
  • To discuss the commercialisation of CCUS/CCS systems 

About ACT 

  • ACT is seeking innovative projects that range from smaller research projects to new or already existing pilot and demonstration facility sites. New pilot and demonstration facilities should have potential for upscaling to industrial size either in a demo phase or early commercial phase. Each project proposal has to be submitted by a project consortium consisting of at least three eligible applicants funded by at least three countries/regions participating in this ACT call. Each project's consortium must have the required expertise to undertake research and development within the specified themes. 
  • The 15 ACT member countries and organizations have decided to participate in this third call and joined forces with each other. All funds will be allocated from national and regional budgets that support research and development as well as pilot and demonstration projects. 
  • ACT is an international initiative to establish CO2 capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) as a tool to combat global warming. 
  • ACT means Accelerating CCS Technologies, and the ambition of the 15 partners is to fund research and innovation projects that can lead to safe and cost-effective CCUS technology. 
  • The first ACT Call for project proposals was published in 2016 and resulted in eight projects that were started autumn 2017.  
  • The second ACT Call was published June 2018. The budget for the call was € 31 M and 12 new projects started autumn 2019.  

What is CCS? 

  • Carbon Capture and Storage, is a technology which captures carbon dioxide (CO2) from the burning of coal and gas for power generation, and from the manufacturing of steel, cement and other industrial facilities. 
  • It involves the transportation of CO2 either by pipeline or ship, for safe and permanent underground storage. Thus, it helps in preventing it from entering the atmosphere and contributing to anthropogenic climate change. 

How does CCS work? 

  • There are three stages to CCS: 
  1. Capture 
  2. Transport 
  3. Safe underground storage. 
  4. Utilization 

1. Capture:  

  • First, the carbon dioxide is removed, or separated, from coal and gas power plants, and from the manufacturing of steel and cement. 
  • There are three types of capture: 
  • Post-combustion 
  • Pre-combustion 
  • Oxyfuel combustion 
  • It can capture 90% of carbon dioxide emissions. 

2. Transport: 

  • The carbon dioxide is then compressed and transported to a suitable storage site. 
  • The transport is generally carried out in pipelines. 
  • Ship transport is also an option for offshore carbon dioxide transport. 

3. Storage:  

  • Carbon dioxide is the injected into a suitable storage site deep below the ground. 
  • The storage site must be a geological formation that ensures safe and permanent storage. 
  • Storage can either take place in depleted oil & gas fields, or deep saline formations. 
  1. Utilization : 
  • Plans  for the utilization of stored carbon. 
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