Bio-decomposer Technique

#GS3 #Environment

Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal has said that the bio-decomposer technique of converting stubble into manure has shown success.

This claim was based on the initial results from a farm where the bio-decomposing solution, developed under the guidance of the PUSA Institute, was being tried out by the Delhi government.

 

Stubble burning

  • Stubble burning is the act of setting fire to crop residue to remove them from the field to sow the next crop.
  • In order to plant next winter crop (Rabi crop), farmers in Haryana and Punjab have to move in a very short interval and if they are late, due to short winters these days, they might face considerable losses. Therefore, burning is the cheapest and fastest way to get rid of the stubble.

 

Effects of Stubble Burning

  • Pollution: Open stubble burning emits large amounts of toxic pollutants in the atmosphere which contain harmful gases like methane (CH4), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Volatile organic compound (VOC) and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
  • After the release in the atmosphere, these pollutants disperse in the surroundings, may undergo a physical and chemical transformation and eventually adversely affect human health by causing a thick blanket of smog.
  • Soil Fertility: Burning husk on ground destroys the nutrients in the soil, making it less fertile.
  • Heat Penetration: Heat generated by stubble burning penetrates into the soil, leading to the loss of moisture and useful microbes.

 

Working of this technique

  • A liquid formulation is formed using decomposer capsules and fermenting it over 8-10 days and then spraying the mixture on fields with crop stubble to ensure speedy bio-decomposition of the stubble.
  • The farmers can prepare 25 litre of liquid mixture with 4 capsules, jaggery and chickpea flour. The mixture is sufficient to cover 1 hectare of land.
  • It takes around 20 days for the degradation process to be completed.
  • Pusa Decomposer is a mix of seven fungi that produce enzymes to digest cellulose, lignin and pectin in paddy straw.
  • The fungi thrive at 30-32 degree Celsius, which is the temperature prevailing when paddy is harvested and wheat is sown.

 

Benefits of Bio-Decomposers:

  • Improves the fertility and productivity of the soil as the stubble works as manure and compost for the crops and lesser fertiliser consumption is required in the future.
  • It is an efficient and effective, cheaper, doable and practical technique to stop stubble burning.
  • It is an eco-friendly and environmentally useful technology.
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