What are the causes, symptoms & treatment of the Dengue Fever (#GS II)

Basic Information:

  • Dengue fever is a subtropical vector-borne sickness caused by dengue viruses (genus Flavivirus). Various mosquito varieties pertaining to the genus Aedes, the most prevalent of which is Aedes aegypti, spread the disease.
  • This bug is responsible for the transmission of chikungunya, yellow fever, and Zika.
  • The virus that causes dengue has four distinct but closely related serotypes (groupings of microorganisms within a genus that share a common characteristic) (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4).
  • Fever that comes on unexpectedly, extreme headaches, stiffness beneath the eyes, and intense bone, joint, and musculoskeletal pain are just a few of the symptoms.
  • Diagnosis and Therapy: Dengue infection is diagnosed with a blood test.
  • Dengue fever does not have a specific therapy.

Dengue Fever Cases Around the Globe:

  • According to the World Health Organization, dengue fever has become significantly more widespread in past decades around the globe, with the majority of cases being undetected (WHO).
  • Dengue fever affects 39 million people each year, according to the World Health Organization, with 9.6 million experiencing symptoms.
  • India has over 1 lakh dengue cases in 2018 and over 1.5 lakh cases in 2019, according to the National Vector-Borne Disease Control Programme. (NVBDCP).
  • Malaria, Dengue, Lymphatic Filariasis, Kala-azar, Japanese Encephalitis, and Chikungunya are the six vector-borne diseases that the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) in India is responsible for preventing and controlling. It is supervised by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.

Treating Dengue Fever with Bacteria:

  • In Indonesia, investigators from the World Mosquito Project successfully controlled dengue fever by using Wolbachia bacteria-infected mosquitos.
  • Method: The investigators injected some mosquitos with Wolbachia bacteria and then unleashed them into the city, where they multiplied with local mosquitos, infecting practically all mosquitos in the area. It's known as the Population Replacement Strategy. The researchers discovered that the prevalence of dengue disease was 77 percent lower in areas where Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes were released after 27 months than in areas where such deployments were not conducted.

Vaccine for Dengue Fever:

  • The CYD-TDV or Dengvaxia dengue vaccine was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2019, making it the first dengue vaccine to get regulatory approval in the US.
  • Dengvaxia is a live, attenuated dengue virus that must be administered to children aged 9 to 16 who have had a former dengue infection that has been confirmed by a test and who live in an endemic area.

Source : THE HINDU. 

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