#GS3 #Environment 

News : Union Minister for Environment, Prakash Javadekar represented India in the first virtual Petersberg Climate Dialogue. 

  • The first virtual Climate Dialogue, was the eleventh session of Petersberg Climate Dialogue. 
  • It has been hosted by Germany since 2010 to provide a forum for informal high-level political discussions, focusing both on international climate negotiations and the advancement of climate action. 
  • The dialogue saw participation from Ministers and representatives of about 30 countries.  

Paris Agreement 2015 

  • Parties to UNFCCC agreed to strive to limit the rise in global warming to well under 2 degrees Celsius, over pre-industrial levels, by 2100, under Paris Agreement 2015. 
  • Nationally determined contributions (NDCs) were conceived at the Paris summit which require each Party to prepare, communicate and maintain successive NDCs that it intends to achieve. 
  • Parties shall pursue domestic mitigation measures, with the aim of achieving the objectives of such contributions. 
  • Paris Agreement replaced earlier agreement to deal with climate change, Kyoto Protocol. 

Kyoto Protocol 

  • It was an international agreement linked to the UNFCCC, which committed its parties by setting internationally binding emission reduction targets. 
  • It was adopted in Kyoto, Japan in 1997 and entered into force in 2005. 
  • It recognized that developed countries are principally responsible for the current high levels of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in the atmosphere as a result of more than 150 years of industrial activity. 
  • The detailed rules for the implementation of the Protocol were adopted at COP-7 in Marrakesh, in 2001 and are referred to as the Marrakesh Accords. 
  • Kyoto Protocol Phase-1 (2005-12) gave the target of cutting down emissions by 5%. 
  • Phase-2 (2013-20) gave the target of reducing emissions by at least 18% by the industrialized countries. 
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