Immune System

#GS3 #Science 


Broadly, the immune system is categorised into two namely innate immunity and adaptive immunity.

  • According to the National Library of Medicine (NLM), you are born with innate immunity and it consists of barriers in the body that keep foreign threats out. 
  • Innate immunity components are skin, stomach acid, an enzyme found in tears and skin oils, mucus and the cough reflex. 
  • Chemical components of innate immunity are interferon and interleukin-1. It is to be noted here that innate immunity is non-specific that is it does not protect against specific threats.
  • On the other hand, adaptive immunity targets specific threats to the body as per NLM. In such type of immunity, threat must be processed and recognised by the body. 
  • Then, the immune system generates antibodies to fight against the threat. When the threat becomes neutral, the adaptive immune system remembers it and in the future, it makes the response for the same germ more efficient. 
  • Innate immunity is also known as non-specific and adaptive as specific.


  • Major cell types of Innate immunity: Macrophages, Neutrophils, Natural Killer Cells, Dendritic Cells, Basophils, Eosinophils
  • Major cell types of Adaptive immunity: T cells, B cells, and other antigen-presenting cells.
  • Innate Immunity examples: Skin, hair, cough, mucous membranes, phagocytes, granulocytes
  • Adaptive Immunity examples: Pus, swelling, redness, pain, T and B lymphocyte response
  • Innate immunity key components: Antimicrobial peptides and proteins like toxic granules
  • Adaptive Immunity Key components: Antibodies
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