Hoysala inscription found near Arsikere

#GS1 History


News info:

  • An inscription of the Hoysala period and pedestals, said to be of an ancient structure, were found close to the site where a government engineering college is coming up at Kellengere near Arsikere.
  • As much as 15 acres of government land, spread over Lakshmidevarahalli and Kellengere villages, have been taken up for the construction of the college.

Hoysala empire:

  1. This empire ruled almost all the present-day Karnataka between the 11th to mid 14th centuries. 
  2. Their capital was Belur which was later shifted to Halebidu. This period was a very important era for the development of art, architecture, and religion in the Southern countries. 
  3. The Hoysala Empire contributed to the growth of both Kannada and Sanskrit literature.
  4. The earliest known king of this empire is Nripa Kama II who lived around 1026-1047 AD. He was probably a feudatory of the Western Gang Dynasty and is known to have indulged in futile wars against the Cholas.
  5. However, another early Hoysala ruler Vinayaditya was a feudatory of Chalukyas of Kalyani. Vinayaditya was having family ties with Western Chalukyan King Someshwara I. His son Ereyanaga tried to establish himself as an independent monarch but was not successful. He was succeeded by Veera Ballala-I who was also an unimportant ruler. 
  6. The first notable great Hoysala king was Vishnuvardhana, who was also known as Bittiga.

Vishnuvardhana
The period assigned to the reign of Vishnuvardhana or Bittiga is 1108-1152 AD. He is best known for taking steps to consolidate the Hoysala Empire.

Hoysala.in :: Hoysala | Hoysala, Ancient india map, Map
  • He established his capital at Dorsamudra, which is modern Halebidu in Karnataka. Vishnuvardhana was the younger brother of Veera Ballala-I. He assumed the title of Talakadagonda and Veera Ganga. He built the Nirtinarayana temple at Talakad and Chennakasava temple at Belur. 
  • He was originally a Jain and the Jain religion enjoyed high favor under his minister Gangaraja’s protection. He carried out numerous conquests and defeated the mighty kings of the Chola, Pandya, and Chera kingdoms. 
  • It is said that under the influence of Ramanujacharya, Vishnuvardhana converted to Hinduism and became a Vashnavite. This is evident by the number of Vishnu temples, built during his reign. He died in 1152 and his son Narasimha I ascended the throne. Narsimha I killed the Western Chalukyan ruler Tailapa III. He was succeeded by Veera Ballala II.

Veera Ballala II
 

Veera Ballala II (1173–1220 AD) was another greatest monarch of the Hoysala Empire. He put the Chalukyas of Kalyani to an end by defeating Someshwara IV. After this defeat, Someshwara IV shifted his capital to Banavasi, and the Kalyani passed to the hands of Yadavas of Devagiri. The successors of Vera Ballala II were mostly unimportant rulers. The last great King was Veera Ballala III.

 

Veera Ballala III

  • Veera Ballala III was the last great ruler of the Hoysala Empire. His reign was from 1291 AD till 1343 AD. 
  • In 1310, the commanders of Sultan Alauddin Khilji had invaded the Deccan devastating most of the countries. 
  • By 1318 Devagiri was occupied by the Sultan of Delhi and by 1336, almost all Hindu Kingdoms of the south except the Hoysala Empire were annexed to the Delhi Sultanate. 
  • A Muslim Madurai Sultanate was also formed in those years. 
  • Veera Ballala III campaigned against the Muslims. He made Tiruvannamalai his new capital and founded another capital at the banks of River Tungabhadra at Hosapattana where his able commanders Harihara and Bukkaraya (popularly known as Hakka and Bukka)who later founded the Vijayanagar Empire in 1336.
  • Veera Ballala III was killed in one of the battles against the Delhi Sultan in 1343. He was succeeded by Harihara Raya I who founded the Sangama Dynasty of the Vijayanagar empire. 

 

Hoysala Temple Architecture:

  1. It is the building style developed under the rule of the Hoysalas and is mostly concentrated in southern Karnataka.
  2. Hoysala temples are sometimes called hybrid or vesara as their unique style seems neither completely Dravida nor nagara, but somewhere in between.
  3. They are easily distinguishable from other medieval temples by their highly original star-like ground-plans and a profusion of decorative carvings.
  4. The temples, instead of consisting of a simple inner chamber with its pillared hall, contain multiple shrines grouped around a central pillared hall and laid out in the shape of an intricately-designed star.
  5. The most characteristic feature of these temples is that they grow extremely complex with so many projecting angles emerging from the previously straightforward square temple, that the plan of these temples starts looking like a star, and is thus known as a stellate-plan.

 

Some of their famous temples are:

  1. Hoysaleshvara (Lord of the Hoysalas) Temple:  At Halebid, Karnataka, and built-in dark schist stone by a Hoysala king in AD 1150.
  2. Chennakeshava Temple:    At Somnathpur, Karnataka and was built around AD 1268 under Narasimha III.
  3. Kesava Temple: At Belur, Hassan district of Karnataka built by Vishnuvardhana.

 

Source: The Hindu

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