Crossborder Terrorism

#GS3 #GS2 #Security #InternationalRelations

  • The Border Security Force on Saturday unearthed a 150 metre tunnel on the International Border in Jammu. 
  • This is the fourth such passage to be found in the past six months.


Border Security Force

  • The BSF was raised in 1965 after the India-Pakistan war. They are defined as First Line of Defence of Indian Territories.
  • It is one among the 7 Central Armed Police Forces.
  • Their mandate is to guard the Indian borders shared with Pakistan and Bangladesh.
  • CAPF comes under the control of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA).
  • Other Central Armed Police Forces are:
    • Assam Rifles (AR)
    • Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)
    • Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)
    • Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)
    • National Security Guards (NSG)
    • Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB).
  • BSF is deployed primarily on India-Pakistan and India-Bangladesh Border. They are deployed along the Line of Control (LoC) and certain battalions even deal with Anti-Naxal Operations (LWE)
  • BSF defends Sir Creak in Arabian Sea and Sundarban delta in the Bay of Bengal.
  • BSF also assists the state administration in maintaining Law and Order and to conduct peaceful election.
  • They operate during natural disasters to save human lives.
  • BSF actively takes part in UN peacekeeping Mission by sending a huge contingent of its trained manpower every year.
  • It has an air wing, marine wing, an artillery regiment, and commando units.


Cross-Border Terrorism

  • ‘Cross-border’ means movement or activity across border between countries.
  • Cross-Border Terrorism is a kind of offence in which soil of one country is used to create terror in bordering countries.
  • It is an undeclared war with the strategic aim to bleed a nation for prolonged period by small efforts. It can also be called as grey zone war.
  • During the past decade, thousands of civilians have died in acts of terrorism. This is apart from the thousands of security personnel who have sacrificed their lives in the line of duty.
  • Infiltration and smuggling of narcotics, arms and weapons across the borders have been matters of constant and unmitigated anxiety to all concerned agencies manning the borders.
  • Cross-Border Terrorism from Pakistan has always pertained due denial of boundaries by the state-sponsored terrorist groups.
  • Lack of cooperation from hostile neighbors like Pakistan has made border management difficult for our country.




#GS3 #Science&Technology

The resurrection of 222 Squadron at Thanjavur with Sukhoi30 aircraft has paved the way for strengthening maritime security in the southern peninsula and maintaining Indian interests in the Indian Ocean region


Sukhoi 30 Fighter Aircraft 

  1. Sukhoi 30 is Fighter Jet with a twin-engine manufactured in Russia.
  2. Indian Air Force uses the Sukhoi 30 MkI variant.
  3. Sukhoi 30 MKI is said to be the backbone of the Indian Air Force.
  4. Its range is 3000Km and can go upto Mach 2 speed
  5. Sukhoi 30 uses the Bars Planar Array Radar.



India-China border dispute

#GS2 #InternationalRelations

India and China are scheduled to hold the ninth round of Corps Commander Talks on Sunday after a long delay in the senior military level talks to work out a phased disengagement and de-escalation along the disputed border in Eastern Ladakh.



  • The Line of Actual Control lies east of the confluence of the Galwan and Shyok rivers in the valley, up to which both India and China have been patrolling in recent years.
  • The LAC refers to territory under the actual control of each side. It is not same as their territorial claim.
  • India’s territorial claims extend 38,000 sq km more to the other side of the LAC including Aksai Chin, but the LAC, where India has effective control runs through the valley.
  • After the clash between the Indian Army and PLA, China has claimed that the entire valley lies on its side of the LAC.
  • China and India has different perceptions regarding the LAC.
  • China also claims parts of Arunachal Pradesh.
  • LAC has never been demarcated



Desert Knight


Ex Desert Knight-21 is a bilateral Air exercise between Indian Air Force (IAF) and French Air and Space Force  

  • Desert Knight includes the fielding of Rafale aircraft by both sides
  • It shows the growing interaction between the two premier Air Forces.
  • India and France are engaging in wargames called Exercise SKYROS that includes Rafale Fighter jets.


Defence Exercises between India and France:

  • Varuna – Naval exercise
  • Garuda – Air exercise
  • Shakti – Army exercise




#GS2 #InternationalRelations

Taiwan reports Chinese air incursions



  • Taiwan - the Republic of China (ROC), is an island country off the southern coast of China.
  • It is an independently governed country since 1949.
  • It is the 5th largest economy in Asia.
  • It is has key chip manufacturing sector, and is the second-largest manufacturer of IT hardware.
  • According to The People’s Republic of China, Taiwan is a province. But Taiwan is a territory with its own democratically elected government.
  • China and Taiwan maintain a fragile relationship, which has improved during the past seven years but is periodically tested.


India-Taiwan Relations

  • India and Taiwan do not maintain formal diplomatic relations since India adopted the One China Policy. The areas of cooperation between India and Taiwan are very limited.   
  • Although many countries worldwide continue to recognise Taiwan as an independent state, India is not among them
  • Trade between both countries is still relatively insignificant. Taiwan’s share of trade with India is around 1% of its global trade.




#GS2 #Health

There has been a low turnout of healthcare workers across the country even a week after the massive exercise began. 

Apart from vaccine hesitancy, the reason could be the glitches in the CoWIN platform too. 



  • It is a mobile app for recording vaccine data.
  • It will be used for recording vaccine data and will form a database of healthcare workers too.
  • Once people start to register for the app, the platform will upload bulk data on co-morbidity provided by local authorities.
  • In the process of forming database of Healthcare Workers, which is in an advanced stage across all States/UTs, data is presently being uploaded on the Co-WIN platform.



Efficacy of a nasal SARSCoV2 vaccine

#GS2 #Health


Nasal vaccine: 

  • An intranasal vaccine delivers a vaccine through a spritz through the nostrils. 
  • Advantage: Better compliance and lower costs. 


Is the vaccine suitable for COVID19?

  • According to study published in Science Direct, targeting the immune response to the upper respiratory tract provides critical protection. 
  • Intranasal vaccination induces protective mucosal immunity against the SARSCoV2 in rodents.
  • A safe and efficacious nasal vaccine is can target the literal entry point of the virus into the body.
  • Researchers at Lancaster University claimed they had administered two doses of a COVID19 vaccine via a nasal spray in animals, and this had elicited robust antibodies and Tcell responses that were enough to be able to neutralise SARSCoV2.
  • So far, intranasal vaccination is used only for influenza
  • It cannot be used on people who have compromised immune systems.



U.S. & climate action

#GS2 #InternationalRelations

Among the first orders signed by the newly elected President of the U.S.A was to restore America’s participation in the United Nations Paris Agreement on climate change.


Paris Agreement: 

  • It is a multilateral agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
  • It was signed to reduce and mitigate greenhouse-gas-emissions.
  • The agreement was signed on 22 April 2016.
  • It was signed by 195 countries. But, the US President Donald Trump had withdrawn from the agreement.


Objective of Paris Agreement

  1. To stop the rise of global temperature below 2-degree Celsius by this century.
  2. To limit the increase to 1.5 degrees celsius.
  3. Develop ways to help and support countries that are very vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change.
  4. Providing developing countries with financial and technological support, acknowledging the obligation that developed countries have towards them.
  5. To achieve the 20/20/20 targets: 
  6. Carbon Dioxide emissions reductions by 20%,
  7. Work on increasing the renewable energy market share by 20%
  8. Target to increase energy efficiency by 20%


Nationally Determined Contributions 

  1. It is the contributions that need to be done by each country to achieve the overall global goal.
  2. The contributions need to be reported every 5 years to UNFCCC.
  3. The contributions are not legally binding.
  4. The goal is to make sure that all countries have access to technical expertise and financial capability to meet the climate challenges.


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