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Mahanadi River system

#GS1 #GS3 #Riversystem #Geography #DisasterManagement

Context

A journalist died and a member of the Odisha Disaster Rapid Action Force (ODRAF) was reported missing after a boat sent to rescue a wild elephant stranded in the flooded Mahanadi river capsized. 

Mahanadi River system

  • The Mahanadi river mainly flows through states of Chhattisgarh and Odisha. Small portions of the river are located in Jharkhand, Maharashtra, and Madhya Pradesh too. 
  • To the north of the river is the Central India hills, to the south and east lies the Eastern Ghats, and by the west lies the Maikala range.
  • The source of the river is Dandakaranya in Raipur District of Chhattisgarh at an elevation of 442 m.
  • After confluence with the Seonath River, it turns east and enters Odisha state.
  • The Hirakud Dam is constructed on the Mahanadi river. Here, a man-made lake of 35 miles (55 km) length has been made (at Sambalpur).
  • The river enters the Odisha plains near Cuttack and enters the Bay of Bengal at False Point by several channels.
  • Puri, at one of its mouths, is a famous pilgrimage site.
Mahanadi River System UPSC

Tributaries of Mahanadi River

  • Left bank Tributaries: 
    • Seonath
    • Hasdeo
    • Mand
    • Ib.
  • Right bank Tributaries: 
    • Ong
    • Tel
    • Jonk.

 

Projects on Mahanadi River

  • Mahanadi main canal and Tandula reservoir in Chhattisgarh.
  • Hirakud dam, Mahanadi delta project, Hasdeo Bango, Mahanadi Reservoir Project.
  • The Hirakud Dam– One among the first major multipurpose river valley projects started after India’s independence. The dam helps in controlling floods in the Mahanadi basin, irrigation and municipal water supply. The dam is located near Sambalpur in the state of Odisha.
  • The Gangrel Dam– Also known as R.S. Sagar Dam, it is built in Dhamtari district in the state of Chhattisgarh.
  • The Dhudhwa Dam– Located in Dhamtari district in the state of Chhattisgarh.

 

Floods in Mahanadi River Basin

  • The basin is susceptible to severe flooding occasionally in the delta area due to the inadequate carrying capacity of the channels.
  • The Hirakud dam is able to ease the intensity of the flood to a limited extend by storing part of floodwater.
  • However, the issue still continues and a lasting solution needs to be evolved.
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