Tiger Reserves In India
- Tiger reserves are administered by the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA).
- Initially, only 9 tiger reserves were covered under the project.
- But today, this number has increased to 50 (list is given at the end of the article).
- On the recommendation of NTCA, the state government has the power to notify a region as a tiger reserve.
- There are 50 tiger reserves spreading across 17 states (tiger reserve states) of India which is home to nearly 70% of tiger population of the world.
- From 1,411 tigers in 2006, this number has increased to 1,706 in 2010 and 2,226 in 2014.
Important Facts :
- Largest Tiger Reserve in India- Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve (Andhra Pradesh, Telangana)
- Smallest Tiger Reserve in India- Bor Tiger Reserve (Maharashtra)
- A tiger reserve is demarcated on the basis of ‘core-buffer strategy’ which includes:
- Core area: includes protected areas, as they act as reference points on the natural state of the ecosystems represented by the biosphere reserves. Information from these core areas may be used to assess the sustainability of activities, or the maintenance of environmental quality, in surrounding areas. Managers of the core areas may contribute resources to projects developed with residents, businesses and other partners of the biosphere reserve.
- Buffer zone: surrounds or is contiguous to the core area. Activities are organized so they do not hinder the conservation objectives of the core area, but rather help to protect it. The buffer zone might be an area for experimental research, or may involve ways to manage natural vegetation, agricultural land, forests, fisheries or ranchland to enhance overall quality of production while conserving natural processes and biodiversity. This zone may also accommodate education, training, tourism, and recreation facilities. In many biosphere reserves the buffer zone is regarded as an area in which human use is less intensive than what might be found in the transition zone.
- Transition Zone, or Area of Cooperation: the large outer area of a reserve where people live and work, using the natural resources of the area in a sustainable manner. The term ‘area of cooperation’ underscores the role of cooperation as the main tool to achieve the objectives of the biosphere reserve. It is here that the local communities, conservation agencies, scientists, civil associations, cultural groups, businesses and other stakeholders agree to work together to manage and use the area in a sustainable way that will benefit the people who live there.
- It was launched in the country in the year 1973 in Palamau Tiger Reserve.
The first time project tiger was launched in 1973, at Jim Corbett National Park, Uttrakhand. (in some sources)
- It was done with the help of World Wildlife Fund (WWF) on the basis of the recommendation of a special task-force of the Indian Board for Wildlife.
NATIONAL TIGER CONSERVATION AUTHORITY (NTCA)
- It is a statutory body constituted under the Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Act, 2006.
- It was recommended by Tiger Task Force.
- It is responsible for all the measures and actions taken under the project tiger for the conservation of the tiger.
- Minister for Environment and Forests is its chairperson and Minister of State for Environment and Forests is the vice-chairperson.
- The NTCA / Project Tiger also conducts the country level assessment of the status of tiger, co-predators, prey and habitat once in every four years. It is done using the refined methodology, as approved by the Tiger Task Force.
PHASE IV Programme
- Through phase IV programme, NTCA has announced wide expansion of its tiger monitoring programme.
- The methodology was developed by Wildlife Institute of India (WII) and NTCA. This would provide a yearly indication of tiger population around the country.
- MoU with Nepal to prevent trans-boundary illegal trade in wildlife.
- A protocol on the conservation of tiger with China.
- A Global Tiger Forum of Tiger Range Countries has been created.
- ‘New Delhi Resolution’ was passed in third Asian Ministerial Conference on Tiger Conservation.
- Bhutan, Nepal, and Bangladesh joined hands with India to conclude ‘tiger census-2018’ in the subcontinent.
- For 2018 census counting, NTCA has developed an android app named ‘M-STRIPES’.
(i) for the proper location data feeding and filling the record more accurately.
(ii) to strengthen the patrolling and surveillance of tigers.
- The primary focus of the tiger census 2018: to cover the northeast India that was not included in the previous census.
- For the first time, Bhutan, Nepal and Bangladesh have come together to count the tigers especially in the region with mutual borders.
- In the previous census, only Nepal and Bangladesh were engaged in the counting.
List of Tiger Reserves in India State-wise
Here is a complete list of Tiger Reserves in India as notified under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 and amended in 2006.
|Sr. No.||Name of Tiger Reserve (Year of creation)||State|
|Amangarh (buffer of Corbett TR)||Uttar Pradesh|
|3||Kanha (1973-74)||Madhya Pradesh|
|9||Sunderbans (1973-74)||West Bengal|
|12||Buxa (1982-83)||West Bengal|
|14||Namdapha (1982-83)||Arunachal Pradesh|
|15||Dudhwa (1987-88)||Uttar Pradesh|
|16||Kalakad-Mundanthurai (1988-89)||Tamil Nadu|
|18||Pench (1992-93)||Madhya Pradesh|
|20||Bandhavgarh (1993-94)||Madhya Pradesh|
|21||Panna (1994-95)||Madhya Pradesh|
|25||Pakke (1999-2000)||Arunachal Pradesh|
|27||Satpura (1999-2000)||Madhya Pradesh|
|28||Anamalai (2008-09)||Tamil Nadu|
|33||Dandeli-Anshi (Kali) (2008-09)||Karnataka|
|34||Sanjay-Dubri (2008-09)||Madhya Pradesh|
|35||Mudumalai (2008-09)||Tamil Nadu|
|39||Biligiri Ranganatha Temple (2010-11)||Karnataka|
|41||Sathyamangalam (2013-14)||Tamil Nadu|
|42||Mukandra Hills (2013-14)||Rajasthan|
|44||Nagarjunsagar Srisailam (1982-83)||Andhra Pradesh|
|46||Pilibhit (2014)||Uttar Pradesh|
|50||Kamlang (2016)||Arunachal Pradesh|