Conflict between Ethiopian govt. and Tigray rebels


PM Abiy’s target is TPLF but the conflict risks sliding into a wider civil war

  • Ethiopia’s Nobel Prize winning Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed started a military operation in the rebellious Tigray region, it would be a limited campaign focusing on the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF), the militia-cum-political party that runs the northern region. 
  • However, almost two weeks into the conflict, Ethiopia risks falling into an ethnic civil war with regional implications.

Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF)

  • The TPLF was founded in 1975 as a resistance army of the Tigrayan people against the military dictatorship, which was called the Derg
  • The leftist Derg, which was established in 1974, would change its title in 1987 but practically remained in power till it was ousted by the armed rebels in 1991
  • The TPLF played a crucial role in ousting the junta and they were welcomed as national heroes in 1991. 
  • TPLF leader Meles Zenawi took over as the interim President in 1991 and became the first elected Prime Minister in 1995.
  • He is largely seen as the architect of the country’s ethno-federal system and remained in power till 2012.
  • But over the years, the government led by the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), a coalition put together by Mr. Zenawi, was accused of being increasingly authoritarian and there were frequent mass protests in the regions. 
  • Though the EPRDF contains regional political parties such as the Amhara Democratic Party, the Oromo Democratic Party and the Southern Ethiopian People’s Democratic Movement, the TPLF remained the dominant political force. 
  • In 2018, the EPRDF chose Mr. Abiy, a former military intelligence officer, to lead the government amid growing protests and a political deadlock.


Rise of Abiy

  • Though the EPRDF provided a stable rule with high economic growth for 17 years, there was mounting criticism against the country’s ethno-federal arrangement. 
  • The Tigray people make up roughly 6% of the population, while the Oromos have a 34% share and the Amharas 27%
  • While the TPLF controlled the levers of power through the EPRDF, the Oromos alleged marginalisation.
  • As Prime Minister, Mr. Abiy purged TPLF functionaries from key government posts, released political prisoners (jailed by the TPLF-led government) and promised freer media. 
  • He reached out to Eritrea, a sworn enemy of the TPLF, which shares a long border with the Tigray region.


War begins

The TPLF saw the formation of a new party as an attempt by Mr. Abiy to consolidate more power in hands. 

  • On November 3, TPLF militants attacked a federal military command in the Tigray region and captured military hardware and equipment, prompting Mr. Abiy to declare the military operation.
  • Mr. Abiy’s outreach to Eritrea had outraged the TPLF, which had fought a prolonged war with the Eritrean government along the Tigray border. 
  • The rebels fired rockets into Eritrea from Tigray, threatening a wider regional war in the Horn of Africa. Tigray rebels also fired rockets into the neighbouring Amhara region.
  • The Tigray region shares a border with Sudan. The TPLF enjoyed good relations with Sudan’s ousted dictator Omar Bashir.
  • Sudan has a border dispute with Ethiopia. If Sudan’s new rulers (the transition government includes civilian and military leaders) keep the old links with the TPLF active and the border open for the rebels, the conflict could go on. 
  • If it does, it could derail Mr. Abiy’s reform agenda at home as well as the diplomatic agenda abroad.
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